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Organisation et Évolution du Génome des Angiospermes 9781581121124

Organisation et Évolution du Génome des Angiospermes

ISBN-10: 1581121121
ISBN-13: 9781581121124
PUBLISHER: Universal Publishers
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Note: Not guaranteed to come with supplemental materials (access codes, CDs, DVDs)
Product Description: Les relations gënomiques dëgagëes dans ce travail font apparaÓtre que l'anc tre commun des graminëes a subi une transition de la composition en bases qui se traduit par l'augmentation en GC dans tous les consitutants gëniques et gënomiques. Par opposition, cette transition n'a pas eu lieu dans la plupart des autres Monocots et Dicots. La transition compositionnelle renforce l'ëvidence de l'existence de deux classes de g nes chez les Angiospermes : les g nes pauvres et riches en GC. Les premiers sont caractërisës par la prësence d'introns en plus grand nombre et de plus grande longueur que les derniers. Par ailleurs, les deux classes de g nes chez les graminëes ont, sur base de l'ëtude des substitutions synonymes, des taux d'ëvolution diffërents et sont associëes des plans de fonction diffërents.

La composition en bases est un facteur dëterminant de la localisation des g nes dans le gënome. Chez les graminëes, la plupart des g nes sont concentrës dans un intervalle de composition en bases d'environ 2% de GC. Chez Arabidopsis, la composition en GC est plus ëlevëe aux parties distales des chromosomes que dans leurs parties centrales. La composition en GC des g nes et des sëquences codantes suit la m me tendance. Le gënome d'Arabidopsis peut tre dëcomposë en 2 composantes principales, l'une pauvre en GC correspondant la partie centrale des chromosomes, l'autre riche en GC, et quantitativement plus importante, correspondant aux parties distales des chromosomes. L'expression des g nes associës la composante riche en GC ëtë trouvëe, en moyenne, supërieure celle des g nes de l'autre composante. La compilation de nos rësultats et de ceux disponibles dans la littërature sugg re que le plan de base de l'organisation du gënome est similaire chez les graminëes.

The work shows, by a detailed analysis of the genomic features of Gramineae, that their common ancestor did the experience of a compositional transition leading to the increase in GC level of all parts of the genome and of the genes. By contrast, this transition did not occur in a number of Dicots and Monocots. With regard to GC level of the genes, the compositional transition stresses the existence of two classes of genes in Angiosperms. The GC-poor genes are characterized by introns higher in average number and size compared to GC-rich genes. Moreover, by analysing synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, we showed that the evolution rates in the two classes of genes are different and correspond to different functional patterns.

The base composition is a determinant of gene location within the Angiosperm genomes. In Gramineae, most genes occur in genomic regions that have a narrow range of GC levels (about 2%). In Arabidopsis, the GC level of contigs is higher, on the average, in the distal regions of chromosomes compared to their central regions. The GC levels of genes and coding sequences follow the same trend. The Arabidopsis genome is made up of two major components. One is GC-poor and corresponds to the central part of the chromosomes, the other, quantitatively higher, is in comparison GC-rich and corresponds to the distal regions of chromosomes. Gene expression is generally higher in this GC-rich component. The sum of our results and those available in the literature suggest that the genome organization of Gramineae is basically similar.

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CATEGORY: Education, Nature

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