Browse / Language Arts & Disciplines
Program Development by Refinement 9781852330538

Program Development by Refinement

Case Studies Using the B Method

ISBN-10: 1852330538
ISBN-13: 9781852330538
PUBLISHER: Springer
Also available at Amazon.com
Note: Not guaranteed to come with supplemental materials (access codes, CDs, DVDs)
Product Description: The Idea of Program Refinement Programs are complex. They are typically so complex, that they go beyond the full comprehension even of the programmer or team who designed them, with all the consequences this has. How can we cope with such complexity in a satisfactory way? An approach, advocated for a long time, is to separate a concise specification of a program - the "what" - from a possibly involved implementation - the "how". Once a specification is obtained from the set of requirements on the program, there can still be a large gap to an efficient implementation. The development from specification to implementation can then proceed by a succession oflayers, such that each layer is a refinement of the previous one. Design decisions can be introduced in refinement steps one at a time. By this, the refinement steps can be kept small and manageable. Still, the set of all requirements can be far too large to be taken completely into account in the initial specification. Even if they could, they might obscure issues more than clarify them. For example: * An information system for stored goods needs to produce an error message on il#65533; legal input. Yet, the exact wording - and even the language - of those messages is irrelevant for an understanding of the essence of the system. * A banking application interacts with customers with a graphical interface. Yet the specification of the graphical layout is secondary compared to the specification of the possible transactions.

Additional Details


PUBLICATION DATE:
CATEGORY: Language Arts & Disciplines
Star

21 Day Unconditional Guarantee

any book, any reason

Rent This Book Now:

Price guaranteed for 45:00 longer
Due May 15 $963.67
130 days (due Aug 5) $1119.68
85 days (due Jun 21) $1018.91
55 days (due May 22) $974.12
Select Your Own Date
--

Buy this book used:

$1231.65

List Price: $279.00
Your Savings:
Total Price:
 

REVIEWS for Program Development by Refinement


Select a star rating

FAQ'S

1. How do textbook rentals work?
It’s simple. Begin by searching for your textbook by ISBN (10 or 13-digit number that can be found on the back cover of each book), title, author or keyword. Next select how long you would like to rent the book then add it to your cart. Repeat for each book you’re looking for. After completing the order we’ll ship them to you and you’ll also receive a prepaid mailer. Return your books in the mailer by your rental due date.
2. Is renting a textbook better than purchasing it?
We offer both! You can buy or rent the book through Campus Book Rentals. It’s up to you to decide which option best meets your educational needs.
3. How do I track my order?
Login to your account here, you’ll see your current rentals listed textbook rentals listed with a yellow box that says “track”. Click the box to view the tracking number. *Not all books will have a tracking number since they may be sent from one of our partners. Tracking numbers will be updated as they become available.
4. How do I return my books?
When you rent textbooks from Campus Book Rentals you’ll receive a prepaid mailer. When it’s nearing your due date you’ll place your books inside the mailer and take it to the nearest USPS drop box or Post Office. If you don’t receive a mailer you can print a return label from your account. Return shipping is prepaid so please use either of the two methods to ensure they arrive at the correct facility.
5. Can I write or highlight in my book?
Of course! Just remember that future students will rent the same book after you, so please be respectful.
6. How much money can renting my books save?
It depends on the book. Generally renting textbooks can save you up to 80% compared to a new textbook.
7. Are Campus Book Rentals’ books the same as my bookstore’s?
Yes! We only ship US edition textbooks, which are the same as your campus bookstore.
8. Do access codes or other supplements come with a textbook rental?
One time use access codes and other supplemental materials are NOT included with rental books and must be purchased separately.
9. What if I don’t return my rental?
If your book rental is not returned by the due date, your credit card will be charged a non-return fee, equal to the replacement value for the book.
10. Can I purchase my book after I rent it?
Certainty! You’re only charged the difference between what you already paid and the value of the book at the time you initially rented. Login to your account and choose to purchase your book and it’ll walk you through the checkout process.

Textbook Rentals

We know that textbook rentals are the best way currently to distribute high quality textbooks, and we want to have you on board! Join over a million students that have saved money by renting! Not only is it better for you, but when you return it that book can go on to help even more students access affordable education. We're confident we offer the best value in rentals, but if you're not a believer you can always return your book for a no questions asked refund within 21 days.

Why Choose Us?

1. Campus Book Rentals pioneered the idea of textbook rentals, making prices significantly cheaper for every student while still maintaining the highest quality. We've been at it since 2007 and the entire industry has had to adapt to keep up.

2. Though keeping prices low has always been the goal, we can boast an excellent support team that has helped thousands of students get the best value for their education. Chat with them at 855-200-0021 or use our chat box.

3. We practice what we preach. We routinely read our own textbooks to further our own education while at work. We know that only with a well-educated team of individuals can we continue to change the industry for the better.

Make A Difference

At Campus Book Rentals our company is guided by a single question, "How are we making education more affordable?" We know that getting a college education is quickly becoming a rite of passage for students and is becoming more important every year. In order to make education more attainable for the 99%, we started renting textbooks so students could avoid high purchase prices and buyback programs. We know it's a better way, and we're going to show everyone how to make a college education affordable again.